Martín Ramírez


Martín Ramírez was born in Jalisco, Mexico. He moved to the United States in search of a better job. However, the change proved such a racial and cultural shock that he lost his bearings and developed serious mental health problems. He worked temporarily on the railroad, but soon became homeless. He was then institutionalized in Auburn, California where he lived for the remainder of his life. He never spoke, but instead drew prolifically. At the time the hospital staff would confiscate and burn the drawings of patients, but Ramírez hid his work, allowing for it to become a seminal body of outsider art.

Amidst political and religious upheaval, Martín Ramírez left his native Jalisco, Mexico for America in 1925 seeking work to support his family and struggling ranch. He labored as an impoverished immigrant until he was picked up by police in California in 1931, reportedly in a disoriented state. By 1932, Ramírez was declared schizophrenic (with varying diagnoses of catatonic, manic-depressive and paranoid amending that) and committed first at Stockton State Hospital and eventually at DeWitt State Hospital in Auburn. During this internment and until his death in 1963, Ramírez's fantastic drawings, formerly only found in the margins of his letters home, ranged up in scale.

Some of Martín Ramírez’s large paneled pieces stretched to nineteen feet. These drawings were all completed from within the walls of hospitals, on the floor underneath a table, and often on paper the artist carefully pieced together himself. With rhythmic repetition of line and gentle shading, Ramírez created imaginary landscapes populated by the real images of his past: the caballeros, Madonnas and animals of his Mexican heritage and the trains that carried him to permanent exile in America. His technical skill, stylistic evolution, and thematic coherence led Roberta Smith of the New York Times to call Ramírez "…simply one of the greatest artists of the 20th century."

Martín Ramírez’s talents were recognized in small exhibitions as early as the 1950s and most recently by the American Folk Art Museum, which showed approximately 100 of his drawings in an exhibition of 2007 titled, Martín Ramírez. During that exhibition, a curator was contacted by a relative of Dr. Max Dunievitz, former medical director of DeWitt State Hospital. The Dunievitz family possessed dozens of Ramírez's drawings that had been stored in their garage for over two decades. Subsequently verified, this group of 140 previously unknown works, and the estate of Martín Ramírez will be represented exclusively by the Ricco Maresca Gallery, New York. The newly discovered cache of work from the last three years of Ramírez's life will be the subject of a second exhibition at the American Folk Art Museum in October of this year.

from Ricco Maresca

Selected Solo Exhibitions


Martín Ramírez: His Life in Pictures, Institute of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles


Martín Ramírez: Reframing Confinement, Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid


Martín Ramírez: The Last Works, The American Folk Art Museum, New York


Martín Ramírez, The American Folk Art Museum, New York


Martín Ramírez: Pintor Mexicano, Centro Cultural/Arte Contemporaneo, Mexico City

Selected Group Exhibitions


Outliers and American Vanguard Art, National Gallery of Art, Washington DC


Great and Mighty Things: Outsider Art from the Sheldon and Jill Bonovitz Collection, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia


Accidental Genius: Art From the Anthony Petullo Collection, Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee


Inner Worlds Outside, traveling exhibition, Sala de Exposiciones de la Fundacíon "La Caixa," Madrid; WhiteChapel Gallery, London; Irish Museum of Modern Art, Dublin


Dubuffet & Art Brut, traveling exhibition, Museum Kunst Palast, Düsseldorf; Collection de l'Art Brut, Lausanne; Musée d'art moderne Lille Métropole, Villeneuve d'Ascq


Parallel Visions: Modern Artists and Outsider Art, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles


The Heart of Creation: The Art of Martín Ramírez, Goldie Paley Gallery, Moore College of Art, Philadelphia

Selected Collections

The American Folk Art Museum, New York
The Anthony Petullo Colletion, Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee
Collection de l'Art Brut, Lausanne
High Museum of Art, Atlanta, GA
Guggenheim Museum, New York
Museum of Modern Art, New York
Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, PA

Selected Bibliography

Longhauser, Elsa, Martín Ramírez: His Life In Pictures, exhibition catalogue, Institute of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, 2017

Rousseau, Valérie and 29 additional scholars, The Hidden Art: Twentieth and Twenty-first Century Self-Taught Artists from the Audrey B. Heckler Collection,
Skira/Rizzoli, 2017

Stone, Lisa, ed., Accidental Genius: Art From the Anthony Petullo Collection, Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee, 2012.

Ramirez, Martin, Martín Ramírez: Reframing Confinement, exhibition catalogue, Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, Madrid, 2010.

Anderson, Brooke D., Martín Ramírez, Richard Rodriguez, and Wayne Thiebaud, Martín Ramírez: The Last Works, Ricco/Maresca Gallery, exhibition catalogue, New York, 2008.

Anderson, Brooke D., Victor M. Espinosa, and Martín Ramirez, Martín Ramírez, exhibition catalogue, American Folk Art Museum, New York, 2007.

Inner Worlds Outside, exhibition catalogue, Fundacíon "La Caixa," WhiteChapel Gallery, Irish Museum of Modern Art & Ediciones El Viso, Madrid, 2006.

Dubuffet & Art Brut, exhibition catalogue, 5 Continents Editions & Museum Kunst Palast, Düsseldorf, 2005.

Tuchman, Maurice and Carol S. Eliel, Parallel Visions: Modern Artists and Outsider Art, exhibition catalogue, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, 1992.

Martín Ramírez: Pintor Mexicano (1885-1960), exhibition catalogue, Centro Cultural/Arte Contemporáneo, Mexico City, 1989.

Bowman, Russell, et al., The Heart of Creation: The Art of Martín Ramírez, exhibition catalogue, Goldie Paley Gallery, Moore College of Art, Philadelphia, 1985.